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USS LST-325

USS LST-325 is a decommissioned tank landing ship of the United States Navy, now docked in Evansville, Indiana. Like many of her class, she was not named and is properly referred to by her hull designation (LSTs in service after July 1955 were named after U.S. counties and parishes).

The ship was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places in 2009. The property was added to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) on 24 June 2009 and the listing was announced as the featured listing in the National Park Service’s weekly list of 2 July 2009.

LST-325 was launched on 27 October 1942, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The ship operated in the North Africa area and participated in the invasions at Gela, Sicily and Salerno, Italy. On 6 June 1944, LST-325 was part of the largest armada in history by participating in the Normandy Landings at Omaha Beach. She carried 59 vehicles, 31 officers and a total of 408 enlisted men on that first trip. On her first trip back to England from France, LST-325 hauled 38 casualties back to a friendly port. Over the next nine months, Navy records show LST-325 made more than 40 trips back and forth across the English Channel, carrying thousands of men and pieces of equipment needed by troops to successfully complete the liberation of Europe. The ship continued to run supply trips between England and France before returning to the United States in March 1945. LST-325 was decommissioned on 2 July 1946, at Green Cove Springs, Florida, and laid up in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

The ship was placed in service with the Military Sea Transportation Service in 1951 as USNS T-LST-325, and took part in „Operation SUNAC“ (Support of North Atlantic Construction), venturing into the Labrador Sea, Davis Strait, and Baffin Bay to assist in the building of radar outposts along the eastern shore of Canada and western Greenland.

Struck from the Naval Vessel Register, on 1 September 1961, T-LST-325 was transferred to the Maritime Administration (MARAD) for lay up in the National Defense Reserve Fleet.

T-LST-325 was sent to Greece on 1 September 1964, as part of the grant-in-aid program. She served in the Hellenic Navy as RHS Syros (L-144) from 1964 to 1999.

The USS LST Memorial, Inc., a group of retired military men, acquired Syros in 2000. They travelled to Greece, made the necessary repairs to the ship and sailed her back to the United States, arriving in Mobile Harbor on 10 January 2001. In 2003, LST-325 made a sentimental journey up the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. The 10-day stop in Evansville, Indiana, allowed more than 35,000 people to take a tour. In May and June 2005, she sailed up the east coast under her own power for a 60-day tour of several ports, visiting Alexandria, Virginia, and Buzzard’s Bay, Boston, Gloucester, Massachusetts. LST-325 is one of the last navigable LSTs in operation in the U.S. Others include USS LST-510 in daily use as a ferry between Orient, New York and New London, Connecticut, and the dredge MV Columbia operating on the Gulf Coast. She is undergoing constant maintenance and restoration, and is in excellent shape, according to her crew. On 1 October 2005, Evansville, Indiana, became her home port (although she still visits other ports each year).

During World War II, the Evansville, Indiana, riverfront was transformed into a 45-acre (18 ha) shipyard to produce LSTs. At its peak, the Evansville Shipyard employed a workforce of over 19,000 and completed two of these massive ships per week, becoming the largest inland producer of LSTs in the nation. Although the Evansville Shipyard was originally contracted to build 24 ships, the city would eventually produce 167 LSTs and 35 other vessels. LST-325 is now home ported in Evansville as a memorial museum to LSTs and the city’s war effort.

LST-325 in Evansville

The ship’s bridge

A restored M16 MGMC

A typical troop compartment

The ship’s crew, c.1945

The engine room

The tank deck, looking forward

A graphic, painted on the ship by the Greek crew

The ship’s crew from trans-Atlantic crossing

A 40 mm AA gun tub

The LST’s deck, from the wheelhouse deck

Ship’s wheel and engine order telegraph

LST-325s ribbons: American Campaign Medal, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with two service stars, World War II Victory Medal

Gustav Wunder

Gustav Martin Wunder (* 26. Oktober 1830 in Meißen; † 20. September 1885 in Chemnitz) war ein deutscher Chemiker und Direktor der Technischen Staatslehranstalten Chemnitz, der Vorgängereinrichtung der Technischen Universität Chemnitz.

Wunder studierte Chemie und Mathematik an den Universitäten Jena und Leipzig sowie an der Pariser École polytechnique bei dem Chemiker und Physiker Henri Victor Regnault. Nach dem Abschluss seiner Promotion übernahm er 1856 an der Königlichen Gewerbschule in Chemnitz den Unterricht in analytischer, technischer und landwirtschaftlicher Chemie. 1873 wurde er als Jury-Mitglied zur Wiener Weltausstellung berufen. Dort wurde er auch für seine Arbeiten mit der Fortschrittsmedaille geehrt.

1876 schied er aus dem sächsischen Staatsdienst aus. Er erhielt vom Kaiserlich Österreichischen Ministerium für Kultur und Unterricht den Auftrag, eine Staatsgewerbeschule nach dem Vorbild der Höheren Gewerbschule in Chemnitz im böhmischen Reichenberg zu errichten. Danach kehrte er nach Chemnitz zurück und war von 1877 bis 1885 Direktor der Technischen Staatslehranstalten in Chemnitz. Wunder ermunterte den Chemnitzer Professor Adolf Ferdinand Weinhold nach dem gemeinsamen Besuch der Weltausstellung Paris 1878, sich verstärkt der Elektrotechnik als neuer Fachrichtung zuzuwenden. Der Unterricht in Elektrotechnik wurde ab Ostern 1882 fakultativ in der Gewerbschule und Werkmeisterschule aufgenommen.

Wunder legte großen Wert auf die Ausstattung der Unterrichts- und Laborräume entsprechend dem neuesten Stand der Technik. Dazu unternahm er Studienreisen und besuchte er die Laboratorien für Chemie an den Universitäten Basel, Berlin, Bonn, Heidelberg, Pest und Wien sowie die der Polytechnika Aachen und Zürich. Die wichtigsten Anregungen holte sich Wunder von Hermann Kolbe am Laboratorium der Universität Leipzig. Während seiner Amtszeit kümmerte er sich weiterhin um den Aufbau einer Bauabteilung (1878), die Umwandlung der chemischen Abteilung der Werkmeisterschule in eine Färbereischule und die Einrichtung einer Müller- und Seifensiederschule.

Christian Benjamin Schmidt (1836–1838) | Eduard von Polenz (1838–1841) | Julius Ambrosius Hülße (1841–1850) | Georg Schnedermann (1850–1866) | Eduard Theodor Böttcher (1866–1876) | Hermann Oberreit (1876–1877) | Gustav Wunder (1877–1885) | Rudolph Berndt (1885–1908) | Karl Mühlmann (1908–1920) | Heinrich Oskar Wend (1920–1926) | Paul Schimpke (1926–1945) | Erich Körner (1945–1948) | Herbert Seidel (1948–1951) | Helmut Bremser (1951–1955) | August Schläfer (1953–1959) | Edgar Pietsch (1959–1961, nicht angetreten) | Gerhard Junghähnel (1959–1961, ad interim) | Willy Nebel (1961–1963) | Hans Jäckel (1963–1969) | Christian Weißmantel (1969–1973) | Horst Weber (1973–1982) | Manfred Krauß (1982–1989) | Friedmar Erfurt (1989–1991) | Günther Hecht (1991–1997) | Christian von Borczyskowski (1997–2000) | Günther Grünthal (2000–2003) | Klaus-Jürgen Matthes (2003–2011) | Arnold van Zyl (2012–2015) | Gerd Strohmeier (seit 2016)

Guge

Guge var et kongedømme i det vestlige Tibet med sete i det som i dag er fylket Zanda i kinesisk Tibet. Det omfattet de områder som i dag er kjent som Zanskar, øvre Kinnaur og Lahul og Spiti (nå kontrollert av India). Ruinene etter Guge er 1900 km vest for Lhasa, ikke så langt fra fjellet Kailasha.

Guge ble grunnlagt på 900-tallet. Det hadde hovedstedene Tholing og Tsaparang. Grunnlegger av kongedømmet var en etterkommer av Glang Darma, den siste konge av det tibetanske kongedømmet Tubo. Denne kongens eldste sønn ble hersker over Mar-yul (Ladakh), og to av hans sønner regjerte i det vestlige Tibet de områder som ble kongedømmet Guge og Pu-hrang. På 1000-tallet åpnet kongene for buddhismen.

Den første vesterlending som kom til Guge var jesuittpresten og misjonæren António de Andrade i 1626. De Andrade skal ha sett irrigasjonskanaler og rike avlinger i området som nå er tørt og heller øde. De Andrades ekspedisjon fikk lov til å bygge et kapell i Tsaparang og undervise folk om kristendommen. Deretter, og kanskje som mottrekk, kom en muslimsk hær bestående av ladakhier fra det nåværende Kashmir og erobret Gugeborgen i 1632, og dermed var det 700 år gamle kongedømmet ødelagt.

Vestlige arkeologer fikk kunnskap om Guge igjen i 1930-årene gjennom den italienske arkeologen Giuseppe Tucci, som skrev et verk som særlig omhandlet Guges fresker.

Under kulturrevolusjonen ødela maoistene de bemerkelsesverdige statuene på funnstedet. Senere er en slags rekonstruksjon foretatt, med øye for å ha noe å tiltrekke og tilfredsstille turister. Men det er bare gjennom Tuccis forskning at man kan danne seg et presisere bilde av hvordan det hele var.

Хай-Нехай

Хай-Нехай — крепость, находящаяся в Черногории примерно в 1 км к северо-западу от Сутоморе на горе Созина. Крепость расположена на высоте 180 м над уровнем моря. Над главным входом в Хай-Нехай можно увидеть выбитый в камне герб Венецианской республики (крылатого льва). Город очень недоступен со всех сторон, кроме запада, где есть вход. У входа, где можно увидеть три этапа строительства, впоследствии была добавлена цистерна с водой. На самой высокой точке горы, которая находится в пределах города, стоит церковь в честь святого Димитрия, в которой когда-то было два алтаря (католический и православный), построенная ещё до строительства крепости. Есть круглые башни и много лазеек, построенные в более поздний период. На почти отвесной скале на дальней восточной части виден пороховой погреб.

Первое упоминание о крепости датируется 1542 годом. В сообщении от 1555 года говорится, что город лежит между Баром и Паштровичами, а его гарнизон — два солдата и один артиллерист.

Еще позже, в 1558 году, было сказано в другом сообщении, что, в случае необходимости, город может вместить 900 человек.

На старой известной гравюре Бара 1550 года крепость находится в верхнем левом углу. Есть предположения, что крепость возникла в конце 15-го века.

Эта крепость находилась на земле, которая всё время переходила из рук в руки, от венецианцев к туркам и обратно, поэтому в крепости можно найти здания трёх культур: венецианской, турецкой и черногорской.

До 13 ноября 1877 крепость находилась в руках турок, после чего была освобождена черногорской армией. С тех пор она пришла в запустение.

Легенда, передающаяся из поколения в поколение, гласит, что крепость помогали строить женщины, которые носили воду, песок и камни. Измученные трудностями работы они пели: Горе тебе, град Нехай, коли тебя женщины строят.

Nae Lăzărescu

Niculae Lăzărescu also known as Nae Lăzărescu (30 January 1940 – 19 December 2013) was a Romanian television, stage and screen actor as well as a famous comedian.

Born in Bucharest, Romania, Lăzărescu began his career in 1963. Lăzărescu was best known for his work with the Constantin Tănase Theater. He is also famous for the „Nae şi Vasile“ comedic duo, in which he appeared together with fellow actor and long-time friend Vasile Muraru for the past 20 years. In the last years they were a recurrent show-up in the New Year’s Eve TV special at Antena 1.

Nae Lăzărescu died of chronic liver disease on 19 December 2013, aged 72, in Bucharest, Romania. He was buried on 21 December in Focșani, Vrancea County.

Nae Lăzărescu was born on January 30, 1940, in a poor neighborhood of Bucharest, surrounded by his parents love, he lived in a class with 64 kids, as the great actor says.

His first striving with acting came since he was only a child, in his first year of school, when meet titans such as Bimbo Mărculescu, Vasile Tormazian, a quite remarkable monologue actor, Nae took advantage of the long breaks between the cinematographic performances, and shook hands with Puiu Călinescu, Alexandru Gheorghiu, Nae Roman, etc.

While studying at Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Nae Lăzărescu performed in a satirical theater group, as a beginner, and after this huge start in his career, he worked at Romanian Rhapsodie, in the platform section. He has the unique chance to befriend with one of the most important singers from 1970’s Romania, Aurelian Andreescu; the actor, recalls his past memories about it: „From joke to joke I am what you see. I do a lot of pilferages along this life. After my friend, Aurelian Andreescu died, I stop this actions. Since then, 30 years or more passed. Soon I will stop the others too …“. The debut came for Nae in 1963, when he embraced a job as an actor at Constantin Tănase Theater, a fulfillment for 50 years, more precisely, for a lifetime, along with his stage partner, Vasile Muraru, their couplets have been written in the Romanian history of art, centuries from this moment, because their humor was a strong one, with a lot of connotations for the Romanian politics, and for the poor life conditions.

In an exclusive interview for the Tănase Theater, the actor, talked about his models in his career: „I have several models. Then France reached the top, and own the cream of the comedians. Bourvil, Fernandel, and then Jean Le Trevle, and more than you imagine. Marcel Sardou, the famous film critic, said that the best film needs to be produced by the English, funded by the Americans, and sold by the French“.

On the other side, speaking about his major roles in Romania, Nae Lăzărescu said: „All roles played by me are my favorite, of course, I had „flops“, cause it’s the way it is. The revue theater, it’s like a newspaper, a spoken newspaper. The revue screenplay, in the least, changes the circumstances.“.

About his television experience, Nae told that he did it, in the period of holidays, Easter, Christmas, New Year etc. „I know that television was in Moliere. Now, where can I go? At panels, with loggerheads?! All knows all. We, the students, had a show at a month. And yes, bands, one better than other. At couplets, Eugen Ciceu accompanied us at piano. We had great singers. It was Dan Spătaru, Pompilia Stoian, Anca Agemolu…“.

He also played in films, like „Grăbește-te încet“, „Șantaj“, „Baloane de curcubeu“, „Căsătorie cu repetiție“ and „Viraj periculos“. Also, he provided the Romanian voice of Dusty Rust-eze in Cars from Pixar, an experience for his career that was very interesting.

John H. Dialogue

John H. Dialogue was an industrialist born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1828 to Adam and Sallie Dialogue. The family was of French-German ancestry. His father, Adam, was also an entrepreneur and inventor, and established himself as a manufacturer of riveted fire hose. Dialogue grew up in Philadelphia and was educated at Central High School, graduating in 1846. His uncle taught him machine work and drafting, and in 1850, Dialogue moved to Camden, New Jersey.

He married Mary Easby of Philadelphia and they had four children: John Dialogue Jr., who eventually took over his father’s shipbuilding works, and three daughters, Adelaide, Stella, and Lillie.

In addition to his work in the industrial field, Dialogue remained involved in civic affairs. Despite being a Democrat, Dialogue ran unsuccessfully for New Jersey state senator from Camden in a voting district that was strongly Republican. He also served in a variety of community groups, such as serving on the Board of Education in 1875 and on the Camden city council in 1878, serving several terms and then becoming president of the council. In 1880 he was a presidential elector for the Hancock-English ticket and was later chosen as the president of the Electoral College of the State.

Dialogue started his enterprises in Camden by repairing locomotives for the Camden & Amboy Railroad Company, as well as working on Camden and Philadelphia and West Jersey Ferry Companies ferryboats, which were then common at the time at Camden, located on the Delaware River.

In 1854, he purchased the Elias Kaighn foundry where his workers performed general machine work, as well as building Corliss stationary engines under a special license for the inventor. The Corliss engine was a new invention, and it greatly increased a steam engine’s efficiency because of its innovative governor and valve design.

He founded in 1862 the Camden National Iron Armor and Shipbuilding Company, which constructed small ships, but the company closed before the American Civil War ended. Dialogue then acted as subcontractor for Wilcox and Whiting, which took over the shipyard during the “weak” economic period from 1865 to 1870.

In 1870 he founded the River Iron Works, Dialogue & Wood, proprietors, which built iron ships. When Mr. Wood died, Dialogue became partner in the firm with his son, which then became known as John H. Dialogue & Son. This shipyard produced a large number of tugboats, both for civilian use and for the U.S. Navy. The shipyard was innovative, and was one of the first to adopt the compound marine engine and Scotch boiler. By the late 19th century, the shipyard was quite large and had the honor of doing reconstruction work on the famous USS Constitution.

After trying to restore his ailing heart by resting at his home at Atlantic City, Dialogue died October 23, 1898, and his son, John H. Dialogue, Jr., took over the shipyard and continued work until just before World War I, when the younger Dialogue was forced into bankruptcy in late 1913. The property was purchased by the Reading Railroad, through hidden buyers, at less than half its appraised value, and the shipyard was demolished and was reconstructed into Reading’s Camden terminal.

Mrs. Mary Dialogue died in 1882.

Angel Puss

Angel Puss is a 1944 short animated cartoon written by Lou Lilly, animated by Ken Harris, and directed by Chuck Jones. It was released on June 3, 1944, by Warner Bros. Pictures as part of its Looney Tunes series.

A young African-American boy (drawn in blackface style) carries a sack to a river and laments that he has agreed to drown a cat. While the boy stares at the water, the cat slips out of the sack and fills it with bricks. When the boy says that he can’t go through with the task, the hidden cat, pretending to be the boy’s conscience, says, „Go ahead, Sambo, go ahead, boy,“ and reminds him that he has been paid „four bits“ to do the job. Sambo reluctantly drops the bag in the river rather than return the money.

The cat then disguises itself as its own ghost, painting itself white and donning wings and a halo, and proceeds to „haunt“ Sambo by repeatedly sneaking up on him and whispering „boo.“ Sambo runs away, but the cat rattles a pair of dice, causing Sambo to fall into a trance and sleepwalk back to the cat.

The hauntings continue until Sambo and the cat fall in a pond, washing off the cat’s paint. When Sambo realizes that he has been tricked, he kills the cat with a shotgun blast. Immediately afterward, a line of nine ghost cats (representing a cat’s nine lives) marches toward Sambo, saying, „And this time, brother, us ain’t kiddin‘.“

Because the film contains racist portrayals of African-Americans, it is no longer available in any type of authorized release and is among the group of controversial cartoons known to animation buffs as the Censored Eleven. Angel Puss is the only Chuck Jones film and the only Looney Tunes release on the list.

Judicial Watch

Judicial Watch is an American conservative non-partisan educational foundation, that promotes transparency, accountability and integrity in government, politics and the law. It is considered a watchdog organization. The organization states that it „advocates high standards of ethics and morality in our nation’s public life and seeks to ensure that political and judicial officials do not abuse the powers entrusted to them by the American people.“ Judicial Watch’s avowed mission is to use the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and other tools to investigate misconduct by government officials and litigation to hold to account politicians and public officials who engage in corrupt activities.

Judicial Watch was established in 1994 to promote „transparency, honesty, accountability, and integrity in government, politics, and the law.“

Founded by conservative attorney Larry Klayman, Judicial Watch came to public attention after filing 18 lawsuits against the administration of Democratic U.S. President Bill Clinton and other figures in the Clinton administration. An early lawsuit was filed by Judicial Watch on behalf of the Western Center for Journalism (WCJ) in 1998. The lawsuit alleged a retaliatory audit by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The WCJ was investigating the death of Clinton deputy White House counsel Vince Foster at the time.

The organization received considerable financial support from prominent Clinton critics, including $7.74 million from conservative billionaire Richard Mellon Scaife. This led Clinton administration officials to accuse Judicial Watch of „abusing the judicial system for partisan ends.“ According to Judicial Watch, Clinton and top Congressional Democrats encouraged the IRS to audit them.

In July 2003 Judicial Watch joined the environmental organization Sierra Club in suing the George W. Bush administration for access to minutes of Vice President Dick Cheney’s Energy Task Force. After several years of legal wrangling, in May 2005 an appeals court permitted the Energy Task Force’s records to remain secret. Judicial Watch called the decision „a defeat for open government“ and Chris Farrell of Judicial Watch said the ruling fit the trend of increasing secrecy in the Bush administration. Judicial Watch was involved in a similar legal dispute with Vice President Dick Cheney in 2002 when the group filed a shareholder lawsuit against Halliburton. The lawsuit, which accused Halliburton of accounting fraud, alleged that „when Mr. Cheney was chief executive of Halliburton, he and other directors inflated revenue reports, boosting Halliburton’s share price.“ As reported by the Wall Street Journal the court filing claims the oil-field-services concern overstated revenue by a total of $445 million from 1999 through the end of 2001.

In 2006, Judicial Watch sued the Secret Service to force the release of logs detailing convicted former lobbyist Jack Abramoff’s visits to the White House. This resulted in the release of a number of documents.

Since President Obama took office on January 20, 2009, his administration has been a major focus of Judicial Watch investigations and lawsuits. Noteworthy and protracted legal battles over the IRS targeting scandal, the Benghazi attack, and the Fast & Furious scandal are of special significance. Since the beginning of the Obama administration, Judicial Watch has filed over 900 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests and over 90 lawsuits, including a successful fight over the Obama White House visitor logs and ongoing legal battles over the Fast and Furious scandal. The first legal battle between Judicial Watch and the Obama administration was over access to the White House visitor logs. This resulted in a lawsuit which ultimately forced the Obama administration to begin making public the official logs of visitors to the White House.

The scandal involved a scheme by Clinton administration officials to sell seats on taxpayer-funded trade missions in exchange for campaign contributions to the 1996 Clinton-Gore campaign. In 1995, Judicial Watch, Inc. filed an action in the District Court under the Freedom of Information Act („FOIA“), seeking information from the Department of Commerce (DOC) regarding DOC’s selection of participants for foreign trade missions. In May 1995, following a search in response to Judicial Watch’s FOIA requests, DOC produced approximately 28,000 pages of nonexempt information and withheld about 1,000 documents as exempt. Disputes arose between the parties over the adequacy of DOC’s search, and Judicial Watch charged that some DOC officials had destroyed or removed responsive documents. In December 1998, following discovery, the District Court granted partial summary judgment to Judicial Watch and ordered DOC to perform a new search. During the investigation, Nolanda B. Hill, a business partner of Clinton Commerce Secretary Ron Brown was forced to testify. According to Hill, Brown told her that first lady Hillary Clinton was the driving force behind the efforts to raise as much money as possible for President Clinton’s reelection and the DNC. And further that, „…companies were being solicited to donate large sums of money in exchange for their selection to participate on trade missions of the Commerce Department.“

Secretary Brown died in a plane crash in Croatia on April 2, 1996. He was on a Clinton administration trade mission at the time. Following the Secretary’s death a concurrent independent counsel investigation ended. But some including Kweisi Mfume – head of the NAACP at the time and Rep. Maxine Waters (D-CA), chairwoman of the Congressional Black Caucus, had written federal officials to ask for more data on the suspicious circumstances of Brown’s death. In February 1998 Judicial Watch also called for an investigation.

In 2006, Judicial Watch was awarded nearly $900,000 in attorney’s fees and costs from the lawsuit related to the Clinton fundraising scandals. The judge noted in his ruling that Judicial Watch’s efforts prompted two congressional committees and the Federal Elections Commission (FEC) to investigate, and that the Commerce Department thereafter its policy for selecting trade mission participants.

August 10, 2009 Judicial Watch sent a FOIA request to the US Secret Service asking for the following: „All official visitor logs and/or other records concerning visits made to the White House from January 20, 2009 to present.“ Judicial Watch was invited to the White House by Norm Eisen, the then special counsel to President Obama. During the meeting, the Obama White House officials asked Judicial Watch to scale back its information request and „expressed the hope that Judicial Watch would publicly praise the Obama administration’s commitment to transparency.“ However, the White House stated that White House visitor logs are not subject to FOIA. In a November 30 follow up letter, Eisen refused to release the visitor logs sought by Judicial Watch and reiterated the Obama administration’s legal position and, citing national security concerns, requested that Judicial Watch „focus and narrow (its) request.“ Judicial Watch declined to praise the administration and instead filed a FOIA lawsuit on December 7, 2009. In August 2011, U.S. District Judge Beryl Howell, an Obama appointee, ordered the agency to process the group’s data request.

A similar Judicial Watch lawsuit forced the George W. Bush White House to release visitor logs in 2006.

Osama bin Laden, leader of the terror group al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 1, 2011 in a joint operation by the United States Navy SEALs and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). This operation was code-named Operation Neptune Spear. On May 2, 2011 Judicial Watch filed a Freedom of Information (FOIA) request with the Department of Defense (DOD) and the CIA for „all photographs and/or video recordings of Osama (Usama) bin Laden taken during and/or after the U.S. military operation in Pakistan on or about May 1, 2011.“

The Federal Government failed to produce any records within the required 20-day time period. In order to force compliance, Judicial Watch filed a FOIA lawsuit against the DOD and CIA on June 8, 2011. On January 31, 2014, after legal wrangling, the Pentagon was forced to release Operation Neptune Spear documents to Judicial Watch. One obtained email had the subject line and is proof that days after the original FOIA request U.S. Special Operations Commander, Admiral William McRaven ordered his subordinates to „destroy“ any Osama bin Laden photos they may have had „immediately.“

The McRaven email, addressed to „Gentlemen,“ instructs:

Judicial Watch President Tom Fitton said in a statement. „The Obama administration has tried to cover this scandal up – and our lawsuit exposed it. We demand further investigation of the effort to destroy documents about the bin Laden raid.“ The Associated Press (AP) filed its own query in search of „copies of all e-mails sent from and to the US government account or accounts“ of McRaven referencing the Al-Qaeda leader. AP received a response the following day. However, AP never received a copy of the email obtained by Judicial Watch.“

The Supreme Court of the United States subsequently denied Judicial Watch’s petition for a writ of seeking a review of the issue.

Judicial Watch filed a series of Freedom of Information Act requests in fall 2012 with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) after press outlets reported that the JFK Library was in possession of more than 60 boxes of records from Robert F. Kennedy’s tenure as the U.S. Attorney General. Judicial Watch subsequently filed a FOIA request with NARA on December 5, 2012, on behalf of author/historian Max Holland seeking access to „Documents from the Robert F. Kennedy Papers Attorney General’s Confidential File which have been identified by the JFK Assassination Records Review Board as assassination records.“ The government failed to produce the requested documents and on February 12, 2013, Judicial Watch filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit against the NARA, which „stipulates that the National Archives has not heeded public disclosure laws regarding nearly a dozen boxes of Kennedy’s Justice Department files. Those files have been kept in a secure vault at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Dorchester for decades. But under an unusual agreement reached between the Kennedy family and the National Archives after RFK’s assassination in 1968, his heirs maintain some authority in deciding when the files can be opened.

September 11, 2012: a group of heavily armed Islamist militia members attacked the United States’ diplomatic mission in Benghazi, Libya. Ambassador Christopher Stevens and three other Americans were killed in the violence, making it the first time since 1979 that a U.S. ambassador was killed in the line of duty. In the aftermath, President Obama and senior administration officials identified an inflammatory YouTube video as the cause of the attack. Susan Rice, United States Ambassador to the United Nations at the time, went on several television shows and made the following claim:

Susan Rice to Candy Crowley on CNN:

In response, Judicial Watch filed a FOIA request with the United States Department of State for „any and all records or communications concerning, regarding, or related to the talking points or updates on the Benghazi attack given to Ambassador Rice by the White House or any federal agency“ on October 18, 2012. The State Department failed to produce documents which led Judicial Watch to file a FOIA lawsuit on October 26, 2012. In a press release dated April 18, 2014, Judicial Watch announced it had obtained documents related to the talking points memo used by Susan Rice and other Obama administration officials in the days after the attack. These documents show the talking points used by the White House were misleading and were an attempt to blame the attack on a seemingly obscure video rather than administration policy. Specifically, an email from White House Deputy Strategic Communications Adviser Ben Rhodes which was sent on sent on Friday, September 14, 2012, at 8:09PM shows an orchestrated a campaign to mislead. The email „prep“ was for Rice’s Sunday news show appearances to discuss the Benghazi attack. In it Mr. Rhodes :

RE: PREP CALL with Susan, Saturday at 4:00 pm ET.

However, other emails uncovered by the Judicial Watch investigation show that the State Department and administration officials knew otherwise.[citation needed] The truth seemed to be that the 2012 attack on the US compound in Benghazi was a coordinated terrorist attack unrelated to any internet video.[citation needed] According to , when asked about the whether the attack was linked to the Mohammad video, State Department spokesperson Victoria Nuland said she, „could not confirm a connect as we simply don’t know-and we won’t know until there is an investigation.“ Further in the email, Deputy Spokesman at U.S. Mission to the United Nations Payton Knopf noted that at a press briefing earlier that day, Nuland explicitly stated that the attack on the consulate had been well planned. The email sent by Knopf to Rice at 5:42 pm said:

Subject: Toria Nuland backgrounder on Libya

Following Hillary Clinton’s admission on March 3, 2015 that she had used a private email account during her time as Secretary of State, Judicial Watch proceeded to file ten Freedom of Information Act lawsuits against the State Department seeking the records that she had turned over to them. Filed from March 4 to March 9, 2015, the lawsuits sought to obtain “any and all emails sent or received by Clinton during her time as Secretary of State”, communications between government employees regarding her use of a non-government email, the number and names of employees at the State Department who used a non-government email account to conduct business, and records pertaining to the policies used to make sure such emails were searched for responsiveness to FOIA requests. Judicial Watch also requested that previously closed cases be re-opened on the grounds that in light of the private account, a reasonable search of those records hadn’t been conducted.

After this initial set of lawsuits the U.S. District Court agreed to re-open two Judicial Watch FOIA lawsuits that had been closed a year prior, a move considered unprecedented by the organization. They would also proceed to file further FOIA lawsuits seeking information on former Secretary Clinton’s use of an iPhone and iPad for official business, the metadata of the emails turned over to the State Department, the nature of Bryan Pagliano’s hiring to manage Clinton’s private server, and whether Secretary Clinton had received mandatory training on handling classified information. Judicial Watch has currently filed twenty FOIA lawsuits involving the former Secretary’s emails.

Judicial Watch has filed 20 lawsuits against the State Department seeking documents related to the Hillary Clinton email scandal.

As a result of the various lawsuits, Clinton to the court on August 8, 2015 stating under penalty of perjury that she submitted all emails that could be classified as federal records to the State Department. Other documents obtained by Judicial Watch tied the former Secretary to the so-called Benghazi “talking points” that sought to link the attack to a spontaneous protest to an internet video, as well as an email sent to her daughter, Chelsea, the night of the attack saying that, “Two of our officers were killed in Benghazi by an Al Qaeda-like group.”

On February 8, 2015 the FBI confirmed it was investigating Hillary Clinton’s use of a private email server during her time as Secretary of State. The Bureau was forced to formally acknowledge the investigation due to an ongoing FOIA lawsuit brought by Judicial Watch. The FBI had previously declined to confirm or deny the existence of the Clinton probe.

A federal judge ruled on February 23, 2016 that top aides to Hillary Clinton could be questioned under oath by Judicial Watch about her use of a private email server as secretary of state. District Court Judge Emmet G. Sullivan granted Judicial Watch’s into whether the State Department and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton deliberately thwarted the Freedom of Information Act by using a private email server to obscure her communications from public records requests. In his order, Sullivan demanded that Judicial Watch propose a “narrowly tailored” plan to obtain the information and specified a deadline of March 15, 2016 to file it. Among the people Judicial Watch would be seeking to depose are several State Department employees, including under secretary for management Patrick F. Kennedy, director of IPS John F. Hackett, and executive secretary Joseph E. Macmanus, and former State Department aides such as Huma Abedin, Cheryl Mills; and Bryan Pagliano. According to The Hill newspaper, „Judicial Watch’s multiple legal attacks have yielded tangible results…“

Finding evidence of misconduct, a second federal judge has given Judicial Watch a legal victory in a case focused on Hillary Clinton’s email scandal. On March 29, 2016 U.S. District Court Judge Royce Lamberth ruled for Judicial Watch in their motion for discovery. Judicial Watch battling the State Department in court over allegations that it failed to respond to a lawful Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request in 2014, sought testimony from State Department officials. Similarly, during a court hearing on February 23, U.S. District Court Judge Emmet G. Sullivan granted Judicial Watch’s motion for discovery into whether the State Department and Clinton deliberately thwarted the Freedom of Information Act for six years.

On May 10, 2013 Internal Revenue Service (IRS) official Lois Lerner admitted to inappropriately targeting „Tea Party“ and other conservative groups for extra scrutiny between 2010 and 2012. Shortly thereafter, Judicial Watch filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request for „Any and all records concerning, regarding or related to the number of applications received from organization seeking tax exempt status under 501(c)(4)“ including Lois Lerner’s communications with other IRS employees regarding the review and approval process of non-profit groups. On October 9, 2013 Judicial Watch filed a FOIA lawsuit against the IRS for failure to comply with four Judicial Watch FOIA requests dating back to May 2013. By 2014 the IRS began turning over batches of documents to Judicial Watch investigators. In April 2014, Judicial Watch released a batch of internal IRS documents related to the targeting of conservative groups by the Exempt Organizations Division of the Internal Revenue Service. Documents released in this batch include communications between Lois Lerner and DOJ’s Election Crimes Division on the feasibility of bringing criminal changes against conservative non-profits. The documents were obtained as a result of the original October 2013 lawsuit filed by Judicial Watch against the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) after the agency refused to respond to their FOIA requests dating back to May 2013. The next batch of documents reviewed by Judicial Watch show extensive pressure on the IRS by Senator Carl Levin (D-MI) to shut down conservative-leaning tax-exempt organizations. The IRS’ emails by Lois Lerner detail her misleading explanations to investigators about the targeting of Tea Party organizations.

The bulk of Judicial Watch’s cases involve transparency in government and government integrity, and the organization has taken positions on a wide range of issues. Judicial Watch supports:

Judicial Watch is conservative and avows a belief in limited government, individual liberty, the free market, traditional values, and a strong national defense. However, Judicial Watch recognizes that corruption is nonpartisan and nonideological.

According to David Corn, Judicial Watch uses litigation as its primary tool.

In September 2003, Judicial Watch founder Larry Klayman left the organization to run for the United States Senate from Florida. In 2006 Klayman sued Judicial Watch and its president Tom Fitton. The lawsuit charged Fitton with misrepresentation of his academic and professional credentials upon hiring, and upon assuming his position engaged in false and misleading fund raising, misuse of donor money, failure to appoint an attorney as Chairman, failure to comply with a promised severance package to Klayman, and other actions which damaged Judicial Watch, the donors and Klayman. The majority of Klayman’s claims have been dismissed, including all claims against Fitton and the other officers of the organization. The only claims by Klayman that remain pending before the Court consist of allegations that Judicial Watch breached a severance agreement with Klayman.

Judicial Watch has asserted several claims against Klayman. On October 14, 2009, the Court found that Klayman breached the severance agreement by failing to pay Judicial Watch, $69,358.48 in un-reimbursed personal expenses. The remainder of Judicial Watch’s claims against Klayman, which include additional claims of breaches of the severance agreement and trademark infringement, remain pending before the Court as of October 5, 2010.

In 2007 former donor Peter F. Paul sued Judicial Watch, accusing it of using his name to raise more than $15 million to support his lawsuit against Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton while doing little to advance his case. All of Paul’s claims have been dismissed.

Between 1997 and 2002 Judicial Watch received $7,069,500 in 19 grants from a handful of foundations. The bulk of this funding came from three foundations – the Sarah Scaife Foundation, The Carthage Foundation, and the John M. Olin Foundation, Inc.,[citation needed] which folded in 2005. As of 2010, the Sarah Scaife Foundation was the group’s largest contributor.

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Maillet (outil)

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Le maillet, composé d’un manche et d’une tête symétrique, se distingue de la masse et du marteau par le matériau dont est constituée cette tête : traditionnellement en bois, mais aussi en caoutchouc, plastique, etc. Cette particularité permet à l’outil qu’elle percute (p. ex. un ciseau) de pénétrer dans le matériau travaillé (pierre, bois, etc.) sans onde de choc perturbatrice.
Le maillet du sculpteur est doté d’une tête en forme de tronc de cône renversé. Cette tête circulaire permet de garder la même puissance de frappe quel que soit le point d’impact.

Le maillet et le marteau peuvent symboliser l’intelligence ou la classe à l’état pur.

Le maillet est l’arme de Thor, dieu nordique de l’orage, que l’on peut apercevoir dans certains films comme Avengers sorti en 2012. Forgé par le nain Sindri, le maillet de Thor lui sert à se battre contrairement à sa vraie fonction. Il est aussi l’outil de Héphaïstos (ou son équivalent latin Vulcain), dieu boiteux de la forge.

Il représente l’activité formatrice ou démiurgique.

Dans la mythologie japonaise, le maillet est l’instrument magique, avec lequel le dieu du bonheur et de la richesse, Daikoku, fait surgir l’or.

Au XIXe siècle encore, on posait un maillet sur le front des agonisants afin de faciliter le passage, l’envol de l’âme. C’est une tradition romaine que le Doyen du Sacré Collège, d’un coup de marteau en métal précieux ou encore en ivoire, frappe le front du Pape qui vient d’expirer, avant de proclamer sa mort.

D’après certaines légendes lituanienne, les marteaux de fer sont les instruments avec lesquels les dieux brisent au printemps la glace et la neige.

Selon la symbolique maçonnique ; le maillet est le symbole de l’intelligence qui agit et persévère ; elle dirige la pensée et anime la méditation de celui qui, dans le silence de sa conscience, cherche la vérité. Au cours des tenues maçonniques trois maitres possèdent et utilisent un maillet : le vénérable Maitre qui préside les travaux, le premier et le second Surveillant qui l’assistent.

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Tom, Dick and Harriet

Tom, Dick and Harriet is a British sitcom that aired for two seasons from 1982 to 1983. It was created by the sitcom writing team of Johnnie Mortimer and Brian Cooke, and it starred veteran actor Lionel Jeffries in one of his very few television roles, only seven months after his previous TV sitcom role in Father Charlie, Ian Ogilvy (who had a few years before been cast as Simon Templar a.k.a. The Saint in Return of the Saint), and Brigit Forsyth (best known for her role as Thelma Ferris in The Likely Lads/Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads?).

It was made by Thames Television for the ITV network.

Thomas Maddison (played by Jeffries) had spent 40 years living in the deepest Cornwall countryside, and hen-pecked at that, his late wife banning him from smoking, drinking, and even casually looking at other women. With him becoming a widower, Maddison, unable to wait to break free from the shackles that had bound him for so long, heads off to the bright lights of London, where his son Richard (Dick) (played by Ogilvy) lives with his wife Harriet (played by Forsyth). Suffice to say, his rather primitive manners, his disgusting habits, and his womanising creates havoc for his son and his daughter-in-law, both of them being well-manicured executives; him in advertising, her in magazine publishing. However, in the second series, Harriet conceives and (in a rather speedy nine months) delivers Richard a son and Thomas a grandson.

Like other Thames sitcoms of the 1980s, the format of Tom, Dick and Harriet was sold to the US, through the US TV producer and executive Don L. Taffner, who distributed Thames material to US TV in both format and syndication. It was sold to CBS in the same year that the original series finished in the UK, and the US version was named Foot at the Door. D.L. Taffner’s production company managed to make 6 episodes of it after which it was cancelled. In the US version, the widower was named Jonah Foot, and he was played by Harold Gould. Foot had lived in New Hampshire, and following his wife’s death he moved to New York City, living in the Manhattan apartment of his son Jim, played by Kenneth Gilman, and his wife Harriet, played by Diana Canova, best known for her roles in Soap (TV series) and later in Throb.

However, in 1993, 10 years after the second and last series of Tom, Dick and Harriet aired on ITV, its format was sold to the Netherlands. The Dutch version was called Het Zonnetje in Huis, and went down very well with Dutch audiences, while success-wise the British original had failed to reach the dizzy heights of many of Cooke and Mortimer’s previous projects. The Dutch version actually ran for 9 series in over a period of 10 years, from 1993 to 2003. It originally began on the Netherlands Public Broadcasting, and it was made by one of its main constituent members VARA. VARA made the first 2 series of it in 1993 and 1994, after which later in the latter year it moved to the commercial station RTL 4, who made it until the end. In the Dutch version, the widower was named Piet Bovenkerk, played by John Kraaijkamp, Sr., who moved to the Amsterdam apartment of his son Erik, played by Kraaijkamp, Sr.’s son Johnny Kraaijkamp, Jr., and his wife Catharina, played by Martine Bijl.